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Sunday, August 11, 2013

Friday, July 19, 2013

Different Types of Drama

Different Types of Drama

You'll discover many types of drama when studying drama and theater. The symbol of drama, the laughing and weeping masks, represent the two main types of drama, comedy and tragedy. Within those categories lie the many forms of drama that entertain people today.

When we talk about comedy, we usually refer to plays that are light in tone, and that typically have happy endings. The intent of a comedic play is to make the audience laugh. In modern theater, there are many different styles of comedy, ranging from realistic stories, where the humor is derived from real-life situations, to outrageous slapstick humor.

Tragedy is one of the oldest forms of drama; however, its meaning has changed since the earliest days of staged plays. In ancient times, a tragedy was often an historical dramas featuring the downfall of a great man. In modern theater, the definition is a bit looser. Tragedy usually involves serious subject matter and the death of one or more main characters. These plays rarely have a happy ending.

Farce is a sub-category of comedy, characterized by greatly exaggerated characters and situations. Characters tend to be one-dimensional and often follow stereotypical behavior. Farces typically involve mistaken identities, lots of physical comedy and outrageous plot twists.

Melodrama is another type of exaggerated drama. As in farce, the characters tend to be simplified and one-dimensional. The formulaic storyline of the classic melodrama typically involves a villain a heroine, and a hero who must rescue the heroine from the villain.

In musical theater, the story is told not only through dialogue and acting but through music and dance. Musicals are often comedic, although many do involve serious subject matter. Most involve a large cast and lavish sets and costumes.
As a student of drama it is important to be able recognize these different types of drama. Be aware that in modern theater, the lines between these types of drama are often quite blurred, with elements of comedy, drama and tragedy residing in the same play.

David Copperfield by Charles Dickens summary

David Copperfield by Charles Dickens


David Copperfield is the common name of the eighth novel by Charles Dickens, first published as a novel in 1850. Its full title is The Personal History, Adventures, Experience and Observation of David Copperfield the Younger of Blunderstone Rookery (Which He Never Meant to Publish on Any Account). Like most of his works, it originally appeared in serial form during the two preceding years. Many elements of the novel follow events in Dickens' own life, and it is probably the most autobiographical of his novels. In the preface to the 1867 edition, Dickens wrote, "...like many fond parents, I have in my heart of hearts a favourite child. And his name is David Copperfield."


Now a grown man, David Copperfield tells the story of his youth. As a young boy, he lives happily with his mother and his nurse, Peggotty. His father died before he was born. During David’s early childhood, his mother marries the violent Mr. Murdstone, who brings his strict sister, Miss Murdstone, into the house. The Murdstones treat David cruelly, and David bites Mr. Murdstone’s hand during one beating. The Murdstones send David away to school.

Peggotty takes David to visit her family in Yarmouth, where David meets Peggotty’s brother, Mr. Peggotty, and his two adopted children, Ham and Little Em’ly. Mr. Peggotty’s family lives in a boat turned upside down—a space they share with Mrs. Gummidge, the widowed wife of Mr. Peggotty’s brother. After this visit, David attends school at Salem House, which is run by a man named Mr. Creakle. David befriends and idolizes an egotistical young man named James Steerforth. David also befriends Tommy Traddles, an unfortunate, fat young boy who is beaten more than the others.

David’s mother dies, and David returns home, where the Murdstones neglect him. He works at Mr. Murdstone’s wine-bottling business and moves in with Mr. Micawber, who mismanages his finances. When Mr. Micawber leaves London to escape his creditors, David decides to search for his father’s sister, Miss Betsey Trotwood—his only living relative. He walks a long distance to Miss Betsey’s home, and she takes him in on the advice of her mentally unstable friend, Mr. Dick.

Miss Betsey sends David to a school run by a man named Doctor Strong. David moves in with Mr. Wickfield and his daughter, Agnes, while he attends school. Agnes and David become best friends. Among Wickfield’s boarders is Uriah Heep, a snakelike young man who often involves himself in matters that are none of his business. David graduates and goes to Yarmouth to visit Peggotty, who is now married to Mr. Barkis, the carrier. David reflects on what profession he should pursue.

On his way to Yarmouth, David encounters James Steerforth, and they take a detour to visit Steerforth’s mother. They arrive in Yarmouth, where Steerforth and the Peggottys become fond of one another. When they return from Yarmouth, Miss Betsey persuades David to pursue a career as a proctor, a kind of lawyer. David apprentices himself at the London firm of Spenlow and Jorkins and takes up lodgings with a woman named Mrs. Crupp. Mr. Spenlow invites David to his house for a weekend. There, David meets Spenlow’s daughter, Dora, and quickly falls in love with her.

In London, David is reunited with Tommy Traddles and Mr. Micawber. Word reaches David, through Steerforth, that Mr. Barkis is terminally ill. David journeys to Yarmouth to visit Peggotty in her hour of need. Little Em’ly and Ham, now engaged, are to be married upon Mr. Barkis’s death. David, however, finds Little Em’ly upset over her impending marriage. When Mr. Barkis dies, Little Em’ly runs off with Steerforth, who she believes will make her a lady. Mr. Peggotty is devastated but vows to find Little Em’ly and bring her home.

Miss Betsey visits London to inform David that her financial security has been ruined because Mr. Wickfield has joined into a partnership with Uriah Heep. David, who has become increasingly infatuated with Dora, vows to work as hard as he can to make their life together possible. Mr. Spenlow, however, forbids Dora from marrying David. Mr. Spenlow dies in a carriage accident that night, and Dora goes to live with her two aunts. Meanwhile, Uriah Heep informs Doctor Strong that he suspects Doctor Strong’s wife, Annie, of having an affair with her young cousin, Jack Maldon.

Dora and David marry, and Dora proves a terrible housewife, incompetent in her chores. David loves her anyway and is generally happy. Mr. Dick facilitates a reconciliation between Doctor Strong and Annie, who was not, in fact, cheating on her husband. Miss Dartle, Mrs. Steerforth’s ward, summons David and informs him that Steerforth has left Little Em’ly. Miss Dartle adds that Steerforth’s servant, Littimer, has proposed to her and that Little Em’ly has run away. David and Mr. Peggotty enlist the help of Little Em’ly’s childhood friend Martha, who locates Little Em’ly and brings Mr. Peggotty to her. Little Em’ly and Mr. Peggotty decide to move to Australia, as do the Micawbers, who first save the day for Agnes and Miss Betsey by exposing Uriah Heep’s fraud against Mr. Wickfield.

A powerful storm hits Yarmouth and kills Ham while he attempts to rescue a shipwrecked sailor. The sailor turns out to be Steerforth. Meanwhile, Dora falls ill and dies. David leaves the country to travel abroad. His love for Agnes grows. When David returns, he and Agnes, who has long harbored a secret love for him, get married and have several children. David pursues his writing career with increasing commercial success.

Saturday, May 4, 2013

Twelfth night or what you will 1998 مترجم

Twelfth night or what you will 1998  25 fps 
Arabic Subtitle file Exclusive !
مترجم حصرياً 2013 أدونيس انيس
 Now you can download the subtitle Arabic file for the film of the Play Twelfth night By Shakespeare  separated for each ACT and 
Scene  for Education purposes only 

twelfthnightsubtitle.jpg (300×300)

Shakespeare's comedy of gender confusion, in which a girl disguises herself as a man to be near the count she adores, only to be pursued by the woman he loves.

مسرحية شكسبير التي تروي الإرباك والتوهم في هيئة وجنسية الشخصيات , فتاة تنكرت بزي رجل لتكون قريبة من الدوق وتصل الى غايتها لتتزوجهُ مستخدمة الحيلة لكسب قلبه عن طريق المرأة التي يحب


 Trevor Nunn

للأديب وليم شكسبير

أتمنى لكم متابعة ممتعة

Wednesday, May 1, 2013

Forget Not Yet by sir thomas wyatt line by line analysis

Forget Not Yet
 Summary of the poem 

Sir Thomas Wyatt

Text of the poem

1  Forget not yet the tried intent
2 Of such a truth as I have meant;
3 My great travail so gladly spent,
4      Forget not yet.

5  Forget not yet when first began
6 The weary life ye know, since whan
7 The suit, the service, none tell can;
8        Forget not yet.

9  Forget not yet the great assays,
10 The cruel wrong, the scornful ways;
11 The painful patience in denays,
12        Forget not yet.

13  Forget not yet, forget not this,
14 How long ago hath been and is
15 The mind that never meant amiss;
16        Forget not yet.

17  Forget not then thine own approved,
18 The which so long hath thee so loved,
19 Whose steadfast faith yet never moved;
20        Forget not this.
The poem is written as five quatrains, with a rhyming tercet followed by a fourth line repeated as a refrain throughout the song.
Lines 1-4
1  Forget not yet the tried intent
2 Of such a truth as I have meant;
3 My great travail so gladly spent,
4      Forget not yet.

In the first four lines, the poet asks for the audience not to overlook his intention to reach meaning and truth, and to consider the great efforts he has willingly made. The fourth line refrain ‘Forget not yet’ emphasizes this request.

Lines 5-8  

5  Forget not yet when first began
6 The weary life ye know, since whan
7 The suit, the service, none tell can;
8        Forget not yet.

The request here is for the audience not to forget when they first began this tired life of service and courtship, which no one really understands. The refrain in line 8 is a repetition of line 4.
Lines 9-12

9  Forget not yet the great assays,
10 The cruel wrong, the scornful ways;
11 The painful patience in denays,
12        Forget not yet.
Here the audience is asked not to overlook the big criticisms, the mean injustices, the cruel treatment and the pain of waiting through delays in decision-making. Line 12 is a repetition of line 4 again, and this serves to build up the negative issues, which the narrator is attempting to highlight.
Lines 13-16

13  Forget not yet, forget not this,
14 How long ago hath been and is
15 The mind that never meant amiss;
16        Forget not yet.

The appeal here is to not ignore how long ago it was (and is) that the mind never meant any harm. The repeated refrain of line 4 is used for the last time here.
Lines 17-20

17  Forget not then thine own approved,
18 The which so long hath thee so loved,
19 Whose steadfast faith yet never moved;
20        Forget not this.

The final quatrain requests that the reader consider those who were approved, who have loved the audience for so long and who have remained faithful. The final line of the quatrain is a variation of the refrain used through the rest of the poem. The line becomes ‘Forget not This!’
The song is composed of the three line rhyme, or tercet, followed by a fourth line which is repeated, forming a refrain. The intention is to emphasize the connected point of each tercet with a repeated request to ‘forget not’ forming the final quatrain, or four line verse. The use of the negative, ‘forget not’, rather than ‘remember’ accentuates the tone of melancholy and regret.
The first verse stresses the honesty and truth with which the song is composed. By beginning with this assertion, the audience is compelled to see the following sentiments and observations as sincere. There has been considerable effort – ‘great travail’ – put in to this message; not just in the formal structure of the verse, but in the diplomacy with which a difficult and dangerous sentiment is phrased and expressed.
By the second verse the poet highlights the life within the court, how exhausting it is for audience and narrator, and how clandestine the affairs of court are. It is certain that in the young court of King Henry VIII, who was a monarch at 17 and surrounded himself with the young, the witty and the beautiful.

How and When use the Verb Forms ?



When you use the base form:                                               Examples

1.  As basic present in 1st and 2nd person                                I work              You work
2. As a second verb after “do” or modals                               I didn’t go       She will go
3.  In imperatives (commands)                                                Turn right        Stand up
4.  As a second verb in causatives (make, let, help, have)      I made her do it    Let me go
5.  As a second verb after suggest, recommend, insist, demand        I insist that she be there.

When you use the –s form:

1.  As a first verb only                                                                        She works        She doesn’t work
2.  In all present tenses when
 the subject is 3rd person singular                                That store sells good stuff.
                                                                                    The bird is singing right now.
                                                                                    My son has gone to the store.

When you use the present participle/gerund/-ing form

1.  As a second verb only                                                        I am talking     She likes cooking
2.  In a progressive tenses after “be”                                      I was driving when I heard it.
3.  When the meaning is “in process”                                     I saw it falling
4.  As a noun subject or object – name of activity                  Writing is hard.  My hobby is sewing.
5.  After certain verbs: admit, avoid, can’t stand, consider, deny, dislike, enjoy, feel like, finish, give up, imagine, keep (continue), mind (object to), miss, practice, prevent, prohibit, quit, recommend, resent, risk.

When you use the past form:

1.  As a first verb only                                                                        I didn’t go       She liked to swim
2.  When you mean a past finished event                               I worked yesterday

When you use the past participle form:

1.  As a second verb only
2.  In present perfect tense after “have”                                 I have eaten     I haven’t done it yet
3.  As an adjective                                                                  The broken window
4.  In passive voice after “be”                                                 I was born       My car was stolen
5.  In past and future perfect after “have”                              I had finished   I will have eaten

When you use the infinitive form:

1.  As a second verb only                                                        I plan to go      I learned to swim
2.  When you tell why (“infinitive of purpose”)                     Why did you go?  To see the doctor.
3.  As the name of the verb                                                     The verb “to be” is very difficult.
4.  As a noun subject or object                                                To eat right is very important.
                                                                                                            My fear is to die alone.

5.  After verbs: agree, ask, arrange, can’t afford, can’t wait, choose, decide, deserve, expect, fail, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, manage, mean, need, offer, plan, prefer, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, want, wish, would like


Note:  there are a few verbs that can be followed by either a gerund or infinitive with no major change in meaning.  These are:    begin, continue, like, love, hate, start and try.
I like cooking, I like to cook.  I start studying, I start to study.

A few verbs change meaning when you change from gerund to infinitive:
forget, remember, stop

Example:  I stop smoking (no more)               I stop to smoke (I take a break and go smoke)
            I remember locking the door (I did it and can remember it still.)   
I remember to lock the door (I think about it before I leave, so I always do it)
            I forgot locking the door (I did it, but didn’t remember that I did)
            I forgot to lock the door (I forgot first, so I didn’t lock it.

The Street Before Olivia's House Act 5 Scene 1 Enter Feste And Fabian

Act 5 Scene 1

The Street Before Olivia's House 

Enter Feste And Fabian


This last act, which consists of only a single scene, takes place on a street in front of Olivia's house. Feste is reluctantly carrying Malvolio's letter to Olivia (pleading Malvolio's sanity), but Fabian is trying to discourage him from reading it. Feste, needless to say, is in no great hurry to deliver it.
Duke Orsino, Cesario (Viola), Curio, and others enter, and Orsino has a few words with Feste; he is pleased with Feste's quick wit and gives him a gold coin and tells him to announce to Olivia that he is here to speak with her and, furthermore, to "bring her along"; if he does, there may be more gold coins for Feste.
Cesario (Viola) sees Antonio approaching with several officers and tells Orsino that this is the man who rescued him from Sir Andrew earlier. (Antonio, of course, is still under arrest). Orsino remembers Antonio well; when he last saw Antonio, the sea captain's face was "besmeared / As black as Vulcan in the smoke of war." Antonio was the captain of a pirate ship then and did great damage to Orsino's fleet. Yet despite their past differences, Orsino remembers Antonio as being a brave and honorable opponent.
When he is asked to explain how he happened to be in Illyria, Antonio explains to Orsino that he is the victim of "witchcraft" — that is, he saved Cesario's life, and then this "most ingrateful boy" would not return the purse of money which he lent him earlier.
At this instant, Olivia makes a grand entrance with her attendants. When Orsino sees Olivia entering, he says that "heaven walks on earth." He tells himself that "this youth" (Cesario) "hash tended" him for three months; Antonio's words, of course, are impossible.
Olivia's ire is rankled. She asks Orsino what he wants — other than what he can't have — and she accuses Cesario of breaking an appointment with her. Frustrated to the point of madness himself, Orsino turns on Cesario: it is all his fault that Olivia has rejected him, and he will have his revenge. He knows that Olivia loves Cesario, and he is ready to "tear out [Cesario from Olivia's] cruel eye" for bestowing all her loving glances at Cesario. He orders Cesario to come with him for his "thoughts are ripe in mischief." Even though he values Cesario very much, yet he will "sacrifice the lamb . . . to spite a raven's heart." Olivia is appalled: where is the haughty Orsino taking her new husband? Cesario replies that he goes with Orsino willingly; he would, for Orsino, "a thousand deaths die." He says that he loves Orsino "more than I love these eyes, more than my life . . . [and] all the more, than e'er I shall love wife."
Olivia is thunderstruck: "Me, detested! how am I beguiled!" She calls for the priest who married her to Cesario (in fact, to Sebastian), and the priest enters and attests to the fact that a marriage did indeed take place between these two young people.
Now it is Orsino who is furious. This "proxy," this young messenger whom he hired to carry letters of love to Olivia, hoodwinked him and married Olivia himself. He turns to this "dissembling cub" and tells him to "take her; but direct thy feet / Where thou and I henceforth may never meet." Cesario (Viola) attempts to protest, but Olivia hushes him: "Oh, do not fear . . . thou hast too much fear."
Suddenly, Sir Andrew enters, crying loudly for a surgeon; Sir Toby also needs one. They say that they have been wounded by Cesario (Sebastian), and Sir Andrew's head is broken and Sir Toby has a "bloody coxcomb." They point their finger to Cesario (Viola): "Here he is!" Cesario (Viola) protests once more. He has hurt no one; yet it is true that Sir Andrew drew his sword and challenged him once to a duel, but certainly Cesario (Viola) never harmed Sir Andrew.
It seems that the surgeon is drunk and cannot come, and although Olivia tries to find out who is responsible for this bloody business, she cannot, for confusion reigns as Sir Toby and Sir Andrew help one another off to bed.
The key to the solution of all of this confusion now enters: it is Sebastian. He apologizes to Olivia for having injured Sir Toby. Orsino is the first to express astonishment at the identical appearance of Sebastian and Cesario. It is almost impossible to distinguish between them, except by the colors of their clothes. Sebastian then reminds Olivia of the words which they exchanged only a short time ago, and he calls her his "sweet one." He joyfully recognizes Antonio and confesses how "the hours [have] racked and tortured" him since he lost him. Like Orsino, Antonio is amazed. He compares Cesario and Sebastian to "an apple, cleft in two." Viola (Cesario) begins to speak then; she tells Sebastian that he is very much like a twin brother who she fears perished in a "watery tomb." Her father was Sebastian; he had a mole on one brow — and at this point, Sebastian interrupts her: so did his father. Moreover, both agree that this man died when they were thirteen years old.
Viola then reveals that her real identity is hidden by "masculine usurp'd attire"; she is Sebastian's lost twin sister, and she can prove it by taking them to the home of a sea captain who knows of her disguise and is keeping her women's clothes for her; however, they must produce Malvolio because he has been holding the sea captain imprisoned.
Sebastian turns to Olivia and tells her that she has been "mistook." Had she married Cesario (Viola), she would "have been contracted to a maid." But he gives her good news also. As her husband, he is a bit of a "maid" himself — that is, he is a virgin ("both maid and man"). Olivia calls immediately for Malvolio; she wants to hear why he has had this sea captain imprisoned, and she asks that he be specifically brought before her, even though "they say, poor gentleman, he's much distract."
At this point, Feste enters with Malvolio's letter, written as proof of his sanity. Olivia tells him to read it aloud, and he does, in an affected voice that makes everyone laugh. Olivia then gives the letter to Fabian to read. She is not truly convinced that Malvolio is all that mad. When he enters, he brings Maria's "love note" with him. Olivia instantly recognizes the handwriting as being Maria's. Thus she begins to reconstruct the intricacies of the practical joke that her servants have played on Malvolio. She declares that Malvolio shall be both plaintiff and judge of his own case against the pranksters.
Recounting all of the secret plottings which have taken place, Fabian confesses his and Sir Toby's roles in their attempt to take revenge on Malvolio. He also confesses that it was Sir Toby who persuaded Maria to write the forged love note, and that, "in recompense," he has married her. Olivia expresses pity for Malvolio; he has been "most notoriously abused," and then in lines of stately blank verse, Count Orsino ends the play by turning to Viola and telling her that while she seemed very dear to him once as a man, she is now his "mistress and fancy queen." Everyone exits, and Feste is left onstage.
He sings one last song, one of the most philosophical jester's songs in all of Shakespeare's plays. It tells of the development of men, focusing on the various stages of their lives, and putting all of the serious matters of the life of men into the dramatic context of this comedy — whose purpose is, after all, only to "please."


Unlike the earlier acts, which were divided into several individual scenes, this final act has only one scene, which gives a heightened sense of unity because most of the diverse plots, themes, complications, and mistaken identities must be unraveled and resolved. However, there are a few minor details that are left unresolved. For example, Antonio had earlier feared that he would be arrested, and we are never to know why. In this scene, Antonio is also accused of being a pirate and a sea thief and also as someone who attacked Duke Orsino's fleet, causing great damage; yet Antonio denies he was ever a thief or a pirate, and even those accusing him (Orsino, for example) admit that he has always conducted himself in honorable and heroic fashion. Whatever the cause of the conflict between Antonio and Orsino, it is left unclear. Likewise, why Malvolio has Viola's sea captain imprisoned and awaiting trial is a total mystery; this is a matter which is also left unresolved.
The first interchange of wit in the first part of the act between Duke Orsino and Feste the Clown introduces the first resolution of the various complications in the play; Feste is on his way to Olivia with a letter from Malvolio which will clear up the plot concerning the gulling and "imprisoning" of Malvolio. With the entrance of the arrested Antonio, however, confusion mounts to a higher crescendo as Cesario (Viola) is first accused of bewitching and then betraying Antonio; then there is an accusation made of his alienating Olivia's affections from Orsino; and third, Cesario (Viola) is accused of betraying the bond of marriage entered into with Olivia and attested to by the priest.
Cesario (Viola) is left speechless, of course, when these accusations are made. Antonio's charge is denied by Orsino; he knows for a fact that Cesario has been in his service for three months (events have transpired so fast that Shakespeare realized that his audience might not be aware that three months have really elapsed; thus he has Orsino point out the fact here).
The priest's testimony discredits Cesario's relationship with Orsino; thus Orsino threatens to play the role of the tyrant; that is, he will punish Olivia by putting her love, Cesario, to death — in spite of his own strong attraction to the youth. The sudden appearance of Sir Andrew, followed by Sir Toby, creates another diversion. They enter wounded, calling loudly for a "surgeon," and accuse Cesario of having beaten them violently; clearly, we can see that they have indeed been beaten by someone. But the description of their assailant as a very fierce devil scarcely fits our knowledge of the character of the gentle young Cesario (Viola), even though their bleeding heads confirm a beating.
When Sebastian enters, the final solution of the puzzle is now at hand. The most striking thing about him is his close physical resemblance to Cesario; remember that he and his sister are both dressed as men; it is almost impossible to distinguish between them, except by the colors of their clothes. But because Viola recognizes her brother, the attention of this final scene is on Sebastian, who gradually comes to recognize that the youth dressed as Cesario is really Viola. In this recognition scene, then, all parties are happily joined to each other, even though we do not see Sir Toby and Maria, who have just been married, according to Feste.
Malvolio is the only person left disgruntled. There is no humor, no charity, and no forgiveness in him, and after his departure, the play ends on a happy note, with the promise of happiness for almost everyone.

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